Epidemics of various diseases have affected humanity since ancient times. In the Middle Ages, these were the so-called plague wounds. They were able to almost depopulate the then Europe. At that time, plague was defined as any disease that spread rapidly among people and killed. The real pulmonary and smoky plague, caused by the plague bacillus Yersinia pestis, also belonged to this group. Several plague epidemics took place in the Czech lands in the 14th century, and then in the 16th and 17th centuries. The world was not spared by the epidemic even later. There were several epidemics of typhoid fever during the world wars. In Bohemia, for example, it was in the Terezín ghetto in the spring of 1945. However, war epidemics also include cholera or infectious jaundice.In the 20th century, a total of three influenza pandemics took place around the world, which significantly reduced the size of the world's population. Epidemics and pandemics are ongoing. Current, for example, is AIDS, which decimates Africa in particular. Many are also infected with HIV in Asia, and new cases are on the rise in the Americas and Russia.Why do some diseases cause epidemics and pandemics and others behave "decently"? The cause of the "success" of a disease lies in a moment of surprise and in its ability to spread rapidly from person to person. The individual's defense system, which does not have antibodies formed in time, is often surprised. The disease then develops in him and he manages to transfer from the infected person to another before it is eliminated in the body.
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